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Bersenev V.А. site edinstvennaya.ua

27.10.2020 - 17:49

Low back pain is experienced by most people after 35 years. At one point, excessive pressure on the intervertebral discs, combined with degenerative destruction, do their job. And the disc core moves out of its normal position, resulting in protrusion.

The intervertebral disc is an element of the spinal column that cushions the pressure that appears during human movement and during other physical exertion. He correctly performs his function only if he takes a position clearly defined by nature. Degenerative processes change the location of the intervertebral disc, which at best leads to discomfort, and at worst - to severe pain and immobilization of the patient.

The shift in load on the intervertebral disc causes two conditions - protrusion and hernia. They are often confused because the same causes lead to the development of diseases. However, the answer to the question “protrusion is a hernia or not” is unambiguous - no.

In this material, together with the specialists of the Bersenev Medical Center, we will consider their differences, as well as talk about the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment methods.

Bersenev Vladimir Andreevich - Honored Doctor of Ukraine, neuropathologist of the highest category, founder of the Bersenev Medical Center.

Protrusion and hernia: what is the difference

Protrusion is, in fact, the first stage in the formation of a herniated intervertebral disc. Under the influence of degenerative processes, the disc shifts slightly, but does not break the annulus fibrosus in which it is located. It is extremely important to seek help from a doctor at this stage, because during protrusion, you can use the whole range of therapeutic measures, and in 95% of cases they produce the desired effect. It is impossible to restore the normal state of the disc during protrusion only in rare cases: for example, after serious injuries.

Usually the protrusion is 1-4 mm in size, but more severe protrusions occur. According to statistics, it occurs in 50-60% of men after 40 years. In women, the disease is less common, probably due to less physical activity. Most often, protrusion affects the lower part of the lumbar spine.

There is an opinion that protrusion is not critical, and it is not always necessary to treat it. It is not true. Protrusion is an indicator that a degenerative process has started in the spine, which in most cases is progressive. Simply put, protrusion develops and subsequently leads to a hernia, and it is much more difficult to treat it.

As mentioned above, during protrusion, the disc is displaced, but the annulus remains intact. If the patient is not treated, the protrusion develops into extrusion, that is, the ring breaks, and the intervertebral disc protrudes outward. This is a hernia.

Can the protrusion become a hernia? Yes. But not always a herniated intervertebral disc is a consequence of protrusion. The fibrous ring can rupture due to injury, fall, sudden lifting of a heavy object. In this case, it is imperative to see a doctor, and not only because this condition reduces the quality of life. The formation of a hernia triggers an autoimmune process: the contents of the disc are perceived by the immune system as a threat, so the production of antibodies begins. An inflammatory process develops, and healthy intervertebral discs suffer.

If the annulus ruptures completely, sequestration occurs. This is a prolapse of a disk fragment that is no longer associated with the nucleus pulposus. This condition poses a particular danger to humans. The element can pinch the nerve roots, which will lead to very severe pain, as well as permanent damage to the corresponding structures.

Causes of protrusion and herniated intervertebral discs

• Genetic predisposition. Due to this factor, a hernia can even occur in a child. This is due to a defect in the proteins that make up the disc.
• Age-related changes. At a young age, the intervertebral disc is elastic and soft. Over time, the tissue ages, the disc “stiffens”. It loses moisture, becomes less elastic. Cushioning capabilities are impaired and the risk of disc injury increases.
• Injuries. A destructive mechanical effect can lead to protrusion or hernia. Particularly dangerous are blows to the spine and strong falls on the buttocks (there is an instant compression of the discs). This also includes injury to the annulus fibrosus as a result of sudden heavy lifting.
• Physical inactivity. Interestingly, the intervertebral discs suffer more if a person is inactive than when there is physical activity. This applies to the sitting position, in which most modern people spend a lot of time. The intervertebral discs are under severe stress, which negatively affects the shock-absorbing properties. In addition, the intervertebral disc does not receive moisture from the surrounding muscles, as they are under the influence of spasm due to the static position. This leads to tissue wear and tear.
• Playing sports, which involves a heavy load on the discs. We are talking, for example, about golf, hammer throwing. The athlete "twists" the body, resulting in a hernia or protrusion.
• Excess weight. Excess weight increases stress on the spine.
• Smoking. Rather, this is not a reason, but a catalyst. Smoking decreases the amount of oxygen in the blood, which negatively affects the condition of the tissues.

Protrusion symptoms

• Pain in the spine: from mild nagging to severe pain.
• Pain spreading to the limbs.
• Tingling in the spine, arms and legs.
• Numbness of the limbs.
• Weakness in the arms or legs.
• Restriction of neck mobility (if the cervical spine is affected);
• Pain between the shoulder blades.
• Rarely - urination disorders (with lesions of the lumbar spine).

Symptoms depend on the size of the protrusion and its location. If the fibrous ring is strong, protrusion can reach up to 10 mm without turning into extrusion. Be that as it may, any regular pain in the back or extremities should be a reason to visit a specialist.

Hernia symptoms

• Intense pain in the lower back or limbs, chest, neck.
• Periodic attacks of severe pain, which can only be stopped with the help of medication.
• Inability to perform some types of work due to very strong painful sensations during physical activity (for example, lifting things from the floor, cleaning).
• Numbness in the fingers.
• Headache, dizziness.
• Jumps in blood pressure.

As with protrusion, symptoms can vary depending on the location, cause, and size of the hernia. Three types of hernias are most common. Let's consider them.

• Ventral (frontal). The intervertebral disc bulges forward, affecting the anterior ligament of the spine.
• Lateral (foraminal). These hernias compress the spinal nerves.
• Posterior (dorsal). Spinal cord tissue is compressed.

A hernia can form in any direction, and symptoms differ from case to case. The type of herniated disc can be determined after an MRI scan.

Diagnosis of protrusion and intervertebral hernia

The most effective diagnostic method is MRI. Tomography allows you to find out the localization of protrusion or hernia, the degree of damage to tissues and nerves. If there is a hernia, MRI makes it possible to find out its direction, dimensions.

Computed tomography provides information about the state of the bones, but this method is ineffective in diagnosing the state of soft tissues. It can be used as an auxiliary method if necessary. Radiography and ultrasound are also used.

Protrusion treatment

Treatment of both diseases is carried out in a comprehensive manner. The doctor develops therapy after conducting a thorough diagnosis, because it is necessary to take into account the many features of a hernia or protrusion, as well as the patient's body as a whole.

A therapeutic massage is prescribed to relieve swelling and inflammation. Physiotherapy treatments such as magnetotherapy are performed. To restore the full-fledged work of the musculoskeletal system, the patient can be assigned to work on simulators. Exercise therapy helps to strengthen the muscular corset of the back, restore muscle tone. To eliminate pain, relieve tension, neutralize the inflammatory process, drug treatment is used.

Metameric treatments have proven effective.

Metameric massage eliminates spasms and pain, improves blood circulation, normalizes the nutrition of intervertebral discs with useful substances and fluids. Metameric injections are also used, which allow you to directly affect the affected areas.

There are many effective methods. It is important to correctly develop a treatment regimen by choosing the correct combinations. What is protrusion, and how to treat it, they know at the Bersenev Medical Center. The clinic's specialists will conduct a thorough diagnosis, after which they will develop a therapy taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient. Between courses of metameric injections, treatment can be carried out at home. If the patient adheres to the doctor's recommendations, the function of the intervertebral disc can be restored.

Intervertebral hernia treatment

If necessary, the patient is assigned to bed rest during the treatment. Drug treatment consists of the use of the drugs described above. Patients are prescribed acupressure, acupuncture. Metameric methods of treatment are used: massage, injections.

After removing the pain syndrome, you can start exercise therapy, other motor treatment methods.

If a patient seeks help soon after symptoms are detected, conservative treatment is successful in about 85% of cases. If it does not produce the desired effect, you have to resort to surgical intervention. The operation is carried out only as a last resort.


To avoid the operating table, it is important to monitor the condition of your spine by listening to the "signals". This is especially true for people over 40. At the stage of protrusion, it is easiest to eliminate the problem, but a hernia is not a sentence either. It is important to find an experienced doctor who has access to modern diagnostic and treatment methods. A protrusion or hernia is a relatively benign disease if properly treated. The specialists of the Bersenev Medical Center know how to do this.
• You can find out more about the prevention and treatment of intervertebral discs at a consultation at the medical center doctorbersenev.ua.
• Kiev, st. Boulevard-Kudryavskaya, 10-B.
• Contact center number: (044) 238-22-31

Child neurologist

Детский невролог — специализируется на лечении болезней, связанных с поражением центральной и периферической нервной системы, а также функциональными нарушениями у детей.

Как правило, в первый месяц рождения, врачи направляют родителей на принудительную консультацию к детскому неврологу в клинике, даже если он родился полностью здоровым, и не обладает какими-либо нарушениями связанных с нервной системой. Кроме того, также необходимы регулярные повторные осмотры, на протяжении следующих этапов жизни.


The term “cerebral palsy” combines a group of syndromes resulting from underdevelopment or brain damage (often combined with spinal cord injury in the cervical spine) during the prenatal, intranatal and early postnatal periods.

Perinatal CNS involvement

Perinatal involvements of the central nervous system are those pathological conditions that arise under the influence of many negative factors affecting the growth and fetus development in the perinatal period.

Organic lesion of the central nervous system

Organic central nervous system lesions are a group of various neuropsychic disorders resulting from the influence of pathological factors upon the brain at different stages of ontogenetic development. This pathology has many behaviour options and various pathogenesis.

Birth trauma of cervical spine

During the birth the infant experiences a great physical exertion when passing through the maternal passages. The newborn’s skeletal system is different from the adult person skeletal system – it is characterized by special flexibility in order to go through this passage without consequences. Thus the newborn babies have an increased chance of receiving a birth trauma of cervical spine during the process of delivery.

Peripheral nervous system trauma

Peripheral nervous system birth trauma is the damage of nerve roots, nerve plexus, peripheral and cerebral nerves affected by an external mechanical agent during childbirth.

Psychoverbal development delay

In recent decades, more and more children have a diagnosis “Psychoverbal development delay”. The statistics are inexorable. And the sooner a psychoverbal development delay or speech delay is detected, the greater the chances for child’s treating are.

Muscle tone disorders

Muscle tone is a slight muscle tension, which is necessary for their quick inclusion in working condition. It is the level of tone that determines the readiness of the muscle complex to perform motor functions. For each period of child’s development there exist physiological standards of tonic activity.

Spinal amyotrophy

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) – is a severe genetic neuromuscular disease caused by a defect in the SMN 1 gene.

The gene is responsible for the synthesis of the SMN protein, which ensures the survival of motoneurons – motor neurons of the spinal cord. In patients with SMA protein is produced less than the required amount, and motoneurons are destroyed without it. As a result, the muscles do not receive the right signals from the brain,  they atrophy and gradually weaken, and then paralysis occurs.


Myopathies are hereditary diseases, which are based on the muscle fiber damage and, as a consequence, the emergence of a progressive musclular dystrophy (atrophy).


Myelopathy is a neurological term used to describe all kinds of spinal cord lesions. Myelopathy is usually a chronic disease.

Neurotic disorders

Among the mental disorders that occur in childhood, neurotic disorders account for 65%. Neurotic disorders (neuropathy, neurosis, neurasthenia, childish nervousness) in children manifest themself with a wide range of clinical symptoms, among which autonomic dysfunction and emotional disorders are the first.

Juvenile osteochondrosis

Juvenile (adolescent) osteochondrosis is a disease that is based on degenerative-dystrophic changes of intervertebral discs in adolescence. These changes are caused by the teens’ rapid growth, possible skeleton formation disorders, as well as inadequate physical activity on the growing spine. Osteochondrosis can develop in case of wearing a heavy bag on one shoulder and long sitting in an unnatural pose while studying.

The compulsive movement syndrome

The compulsive movement syndrome is a children’s nervous system disorder, which appears as a series of simple repeating motions. Such movements include finger sucking, nibbling, frequent blinking, wiggling, rocking or turning, grinding of teeth, shoulders twitching, forehead skin wrinkling, etc.

Psycho-Speech Delay in Genetic Diseases

With the development of a number of natural sciences (genetics, biochemistry, embryology, general biology, etc.), more and more importance is attached to genetic factors, which are considered to be the cause of more than half of cases of psycho-speech development disorders. This primarily includes the chromosome set pathology. Currently, more than 200 types of chromosomal aberrations are being described, causing psycho-speech development delay and mental retardation.

The autonomic dysfunction syndrome

Autonomic dysfunction is the common name for all the autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunctions, which lead to a “failure” in the work of internal parts and body systems.

Posture disorders in children

Posture is a natural habitual posture of a person, which depends on the spine condition, muscular-ligament apparatus, environment, general well-being, and heredity. This is a complex notion determined by a variety of factors and revealing not just the physical condition of a person, but also a psychical one.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a quite common disease that is based on the central nervous system dysfunction (mainly the brain reticular formation).


The autism is a child’s mental development disorder, which is characterized by a lack of communication and speech and motor disorders.

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Что мы лечим
Spinal osteochondrosis

Остеохондроз позвоночника — это хронический процесс дистрофии межпозвонковых дисков, проявляющийся снижением их эластичности и гидрофильности (диски как бы усыхают, уменьшается их высота). Из-за потери жидкости диски теряют свою амортизирующую функцию, и позвоночник уже не в силах выдерживать прежние нагрузки. Фиброзная оболочка диска истончается и повреждается, в ней возникают микротрещины и разрывы, через которые содержимое пульпозного ядра диска может выходить наружу.

Сervical spine osteochondrosis

Шейный отдел позвоночника — это наиболее уязвимая часть позвоночного столба,  что обусловлено анатомическими особенностями шейных позвонков. Позвонки шейного отдела отличаются повышенной мобильностью, они легко поддаются смещениям в результате нагрузок или травм, а также достаточно быстро подвергаются дегенеративно-дистрофическим изменениям. Чаще всего остеохондрозу шейного отдела позвоночника подвержены наиболее подвижные сегменты нижнешейного отдела.

Thoracic spine osteochondrosis

Остеохондроз в грудном отделе позвоночника встречается значительно реже, чем в пояснично-крестцовом и шейном отделах, но заслуживает отдельного описания. Грудной отдел позвоночника является наименее подвижным по сравнению с другими отделами и наиболее защищенным с помощью ребер и грудины. В данном отделе реже всего образуются выпячивания межпозвонковых дисков, и они редко достигают больших размеров.

Lumbosacral spine osteochondrosis

Напевно кожна доросла людина чула таке слово як «остеохондроз», але не всі остаточно розуміють, що ж це таке насправді. Ми допоможемо Вам розібратися, що ж таке остеохондроз поперекового відділу хребта і як його лікувати.


Спондилез позвоночника — это хроническое заболевание, при котором происходит разрастание костной ткани на поверхности тел позвонков, приводящее к их деформации.


Спондилоартроз (spondylarthrosis) — это хроническое дегенеративно-дистрофическое заболевание фасеточных межпозвонковых суставов. В основе спондилоартроза лежит поражение всех структур сустава: суставного хряща, субхондральных отделов кости, связок и капсул сустава, коротких мышц, окружающих сустав.

Protrusions and hernias of the intervertebral discs

Грыжа межпозвонкового диска является одним из осложнений остеохондроза позвоночника и представляет собой максимальную степень выпячивания пульпозного ядра диска с разрывом его внешней оболочки.

Scoliotic disease, scoliosis

В греческом языке есть слово «сколиос», которое переводится как «кривой». Этим словом медики обозначают искривление позвоночного столба. Причем не всякое искривление, а именно боковое отклонение вертикальной оси позвоночника.


Joints arthrosis —  is a widespread disease. It is more correct to call it osteoarthritis, because this disease affects not only the cartilaginous tissue of the joint, but also the bone. The main difference between arthrosis and arthritis is that disease is based not on the inflammation of the joint, but on the degenerative processes occurring in it. Arthrosis is manifested by the joint pain, aggravated by movement, and the development of stiffness in the damaged joint. In neglected cases, arthrosis leads to a complete mobility loss and patient’s disability.


Невралгия — это ярко выраженный симптом воспаления нерва. Представляет собой приступообразную острую, жгучую или тупую ноющую боль в зоне иннервации пораженного нерва. В переводе с греческого языка  этот термин обозначает «боль в нерве». Все функции при этом у нерва сохраняются.


Невропатии (нейропатии) – это собирательный неврологический термин, обозначающий различные дегенеративно-дистрофические поражения периферических нервов. Это обобщающее понятие, объединяющее многообразные формы и варианты поражений нервов, и это объясняет широкую распространенность данной патологии. Этот термин неоднозначный, и многие специалисты его применяют только для обозначения невоспалительных изменений нервов. В детской же неврологии под понятием «невропатия» подразумевается повышенная детская возбудимость в сочетании с утомляемостью.

Facial neuropathy

Невропатия лицевого нерва чаще всего возникает в результате переохлаждения, лицевой травмы, перенесенного инфекционного заболевания, стрессовых ситуаций, на фоне ослабленного иммунитета. Может развиться как осложнение отита, тимпанита, паротита, заболеваний зубов, диабета, перенесенной герпетической инфекции. Самым уязвимым участком лицевого нерва считается его отрезок, расположенный в узком извитом канале (в пирамидке височной кости) длиной около 3см.

Trifacial nerve neuropathy

Невропатия тройничного нерва чаще всего развивается после стоматологических процедур, протезирования, челюстно — лицевых операций или травм, а также в результате переохлаждения, перенесенных инфекций, опухолевых процессов.

Radial nerve neuropathy

Среди всех видов невропатий верхних конечностей самой распространенной является именно невропатия лучевого нерва. Невропатия может возникнуть после глубокого сна, если человек спал на твердой поверхности, положив при этом руку под голову.

Ulnar nerve neuropathy

Невропатия локтевого нерва проявляется в нарушении его функции в результате компрессии нервного ствола в узких костно-мышечных каналах в области локтевого сустава и на кисти или же в результате травмы (растяжение, надрыв локтевого нерва) при вывихах и подвывихах в локтевом суставе. Невропатия, возникшая при сдавлении нерва в кубитальном канале, известна еще под названием «синдром кубитального канала».

Median nerve neuropathy

Невропатия срединного нерва — это поражение срединного нерва, проявляющееся в возникновении чувствительных и двигательных расстройств в зоне его иннервации (в 1, 2 и 3 пальцах рук).

Sciatic nerve neuropathy

Невропатия седалищного нерва – одна из самых распространенных мононевропатий нижних конечностей. Она заключается в повреждении седалищного нерва и формировании ряда двигательных и чувствительных нарушений его функции.

Peroneal nerve neuropathy

Peroneal nerve neuropathy occurs in case of injuries or nerve trunk compression at any part of shin nerve division. This is the most common lower extremities neuropathy type.

Tibial nerve neuropathy

Невропатия большеберцового нерва часто наблюдается при переломах костей голени, вывихе голеностопного сустава, растяжении и повреждении связок стопы. Повторные спортивные травмы стопы, заболевания коленного и голеностопного сустава, нарушения обмена веществ и расстройства кровообращения нерва часто приводят к данному виду невропатии.

Myalgia, myositis, myofascial syndrome

Миалгии (фибромиалгии), миозиты, миофасциальный синдром — заболевания, главным симптомом которых является выраженная мышечная боль различной локализации и происхождения. Мышечные боли могут возникать в силу различных причин:

  1. застойные явления в мышечных тканях
  2. гипертонус мышц (устойчивый мышечный спазм)
  3. ушибы и растяжения
Diseases of the autonomic nervous system

Вегетативная нервная система (синоним «автономная» нервная система) — это часть нервной системы, которая обеспечивает сбалансированную работу всех внутренних органов и поддерживает постоянство внутренней среды человека.Она отвечает за иннервацию желез внешней и внутренней секреции…

Дополнительные услуги
Speech therapist appointment

A speech is a reflection of thinking; it is a system. If there are problems with oral speech, then there will be difficulties with the thoughts formation, the ability to analyse, speculate, build logic chains, and also there will be some difficulties with reading and writing. A violation in one speech link is enough to make the whole system start to function incorrectly.

Metameric massage

Many articles have already been written about the undoubted massage benefits, and it has long been known that this is one of healing means, along with sports and nutrition. Massage helps to recover from stress quickly and avoid diseases associated with constant nervous tension, relieves pain points, and relaxes tense muscles. It also reduces anxiety, normalizes the blocked energy flow, enhances the immune system functions, and restores a sense of calm and well-being. This is an important component of a healthy lifestyle.

Psychologist consultation is your chance to change your life for the better


The spine, keeping the whole skeleton in an upright position, is the core of both the whole organism and our Personality.

Family physician appointment

At the “Bersenev’s Medical Center” all patients can get a qualified individual consultation of the family physician Petlytska Victoria Vitaliivna, a specialist with decades of experience in this field.

Victoria Vitaliivna had gotten a special multi-field speciality training of “family medicine”.

Infusion therapy

Infusion therapy (intravenous administration of solutions of various drugs into the body) is currently one of the most important medical measures aimed to solve a wide range of medical problems. This method of treatment exists since the 30s of the XIX century.

This method of treatment allows you to achieve a rapid therapeutic effect, as the medicine enters directly into the bloodstream, and also allows you to control its action more effectively.

Kinesio Taping

Kinesio taping is the imposition and fixation of special elastic bands on the child’s skin for several days in order to provide physiological movements of the joints and muscles, activating the processes of recovery and movement control. Kinesio tapes are elastic cotton tapes coated with an acrylic-based hypoallergenic adhesive gel.

Orthoses Making

В нашем Медицинском Центре Вы можете получить изготовить индивидуальные ОРТЕЗЫ из термопластичного низкотемпературного материала.

Ортезы — это специальные ортопедические приспособления, предназначенные для коррекции, стабилизации и компенсации нарушений опорно-двигательной системы. Ортезы обеспечивают защиту и разгрузку суставов, создавая для них внешнюю поддержку. Ортезы -незаменимые помощники в лечении и реабилитации.

Corrective insoles making

Neuropsychology arose at the intersection of medicine and psychology. This is a section of psychology that studies the brain organization of mental processes: attention, memory, perception, speech, motor skills, thinking, and emotional responses.

Metameric speech apparatus massage

Массаж артикуляционного аппарата или логопедический массаж — это метод механического воздействия, который изменяет  состояние мышц, нервов, кровеносных сосудов и тканей речевого аппарата.

Doctor Bersenev explains
Double hemiplegia as a form of cerebral palsy
Double hemiplegia as a form of cerebral palsy
Double hemiplegia is the rarest form of cerebral palsy. It occurs in 1.9% of patients. The most common form is spastic diplegia. Usually, motor function is affected, in some children intellectual abilities may suffer as well.
Hemiparetic cerebral palsy
Hemiparetic cerebral palsy
Hemiparetic cerebral palsy is one of the most common forms of cerebral palsy. This condition arises due to abnormal fetal development, which leads to brain damage.
Atonic-astatic form of cerebral palsy
Atonic-astatic form of cerebral palsy
This form of cerebral palsy has several names: atonic, atonic-astatic, ataxic. Along with double hemiplegia, it is one of the rarest and most difficult forms of treatment.
Cerebral palsy: spastic diplegia
Cerebral palsy: spastic diplegia
Spastic diplegia is the most common form of cerebral palsy. It is diagnosed in 40% of patients, mainly in babies born prematurely. Disorders of the arms and legs are most characteristic of the disease, that is, tetraparesis is observed, but the legs suffer more than the hands
Knee joint arthrosis
Knee joint arthrosis
Knee joint arthrosis is a disease in which all joint elements suffer, but the most affected is a cartilage. This type of arthrosis is the most common disease. Another name for this is gonarthrosis.
Constant Fatigue: Causes and Solutions
Constant Fatigue: Causes and Solutions
Many women (especially aged) trat chronic fatigue safely, saying, it’s a normal, common situation. So it is in some cases. For example, if a person goes in physical labor.
Spinal muscular atrophy
Spinal muscular atrophy
Spinal muscle atrophy (SMA) is a severe neuromuscular disease caused by damage to motor neurons (motor neurons), which are located in the front horns of the spinal cord, as well as neurons of the motor nuclei in the brain stem.
Kennedy spinal amyotrophy
Kennedy spinal amyotrophy
Kennedy spinal amyotrophy is a genetic disease characterized by damage to motor neurons. These are large nerve cells responsible for maintaining muscle tone and motor coordination.
Kugelberg-Velander juvenile spinal amyotrophy
Kugelberg-Velander juvenile spinal amyotrophy
Амиотрофия Куберберга-Веландера – это наследственное нервно-мышечное заболевание, обусловленное поражением двигательных нейронов (мотонейронов), которые расположены в передних рогах спинного мозга.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an X-linked disease and is characterized by rapid progression of muscular dystrophy. This disease is caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene located on chromosome X. That is why, as a rule, boys get sick.
Teens Lumbar Pain
Teens Lumbar Pain
Sometimes teenagers suffer from back pain. Most parents think that the child has pulled a muscle or is just tired. First of all, these are spine problems. Lumbar juvenile osteochondrosis bear a similar clinical picture to an adult disease.
Generation with a head down
Generation with a head down
Modern people can no longer imagine their life without a smartphone, tablet or laptop – with the help of these devices we get new information, read books, listen to music, communicate with friends, pay bills, make purchases and much more. On everage we spend in an online environment from 2 to 5 hours a day, and freelancers (people working online) spend from 10 to 12 hours.
What to do if a child does not obey at the age of 2
What to do if a child does not obey at the age of 2
The age of 2 is a difficult period for a child and its parents. The baby is actively developing vital skills of movement, self-service and, of course, speech. Normally, the 2 years old child clearly understands adult speech, performs basic instructions, and points at the named objects.

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